Separation anxiety is the fear children have of being parted from their parents or guardians. Itâ€™s common and normal for babies and toddlers. A very small number of preschoolers and school-age children develop a more serious form of the condition, called separation anxiety disorder. There are things you can do if you have a child with either of these issues.
These anxieties are a normal part of the development and are nothing to be concerned about. After all, these anxieties occur when children are becoming more mobile, so they make sense from a survival point of view – that is, if children could crawl or walk away from their carers but weren’t afraid of separation or strangers, they would get lost more easily.
Separation anxiety disorder:
As children reach preschool and school age, they are less likely to experience separation anxiety. Of course, there will always be times when they only want to be with you.
If children in this age group seem particularly and regularly distressed about being separated from their parents, itâ€™s possible they might have separation anxiety disorder. According to a 2009 study, 4% of preschoolers and school-age children develop this condition.
Separation anxiety disorder is defined as occurring when the::
- Anxiety interferes with the childâ€™s life, and subsequently the parentâ€™s life
- The severity of the anxiety is inappropriate for the childâ€™s developmental level
- Characteristics of separation anxiety have persisted for at least four weeks.
- If youâ€™re concerned your child might have separation anxiety disorder, look out for instances when she:
- Dislikes being separated from you
- Worries that you or she might get hurt or have an accident
- Refuses to go to day care, preschool or school
- Refuses to sleep at other peopleâ€™s places without you
- Complains about feeling sick when separated.
Helping children with separation anxiety
If your child is suffering from separation anxiety, there are lots of things you can do to help her.
- Tell your child when youâ€™re leaving and when youâ€™ll be back. This is a helpful thing to do, even with babies. Some parents feel it will be easier to sneak out when their child is settled, but this can make things worse – your child might feel confused or upset when he realizes youâ€™re not around, and might then be more difficult to settle the next time you leave him.
- Say goodbye to your child briefly – donâ€™t drag it out.
- Settle your child in an enjoyable activity before leaving.
- If youâ€™re leaving your child in a new setting (child care centre, preschool, friendâ€™s house, babysitter), spend time at the new place with your child before the separation occurs. She needs to know sheâ€™s being left in a safe place with a person you can both trust, and sheâ€™ll be less distressed if sheâ€™s left in a familiar place with familiar people.
- To increase your childâ€™s feelings of safety, let him take something he loves from home, such as a teddy bear, pillow or blanket. These objects can be gradually phased out as he becomes more settled.
- Keep a relaxed and happy expression on your face when youâ€™re leaving your child. If you seem worried or sad, your child might think the place isn’t safe and can get upset too.
- It can be useful to tell your childâ€™s child care centre, preschool or school about her anxiety, and let them know about anything youâ€™re doing to help your child. This way, other people in your childâ€™s environment can give her consistent support.
- Gently encourage your child to separate from you by giving him practice. It’s important to give him positive experiences of separations and reunions. Avoiding separations from your child can make the problem worse.
- No matter how frustrated you feel, avoid criticizing or being negative about your childâ€™s difficulty with separation. For example, avoid saying things like, â€˜Sheâ€™s such a mummyâ€™s girlâ€™ or â€˜Donâ€™t be such a babyâ€™.
- Read books or make up stories with your child about separation fears. (For example, â€˜Once upon a time, there was a little bunny who didn’t want to leave her mummy in the hutch. She was afraid of what she might find outside â€¦â€™.) This might help your child feel heâ€™s not alone in being afraid of separating from his parents.
- Make a conscious effort to foster your childâ€™s self esteem by complimenting her and giving her lots of positive attention.
You know your child best. If youâ€™re worried about his anxiety, consider seeking professional help. Here are some places to start:
- Your childâ€™s school counsellor
- Your childâ€™s GP or paediatrician
- Local childrenâ€™s health or community health centre
- A specialist anxiety clinic (present in most states).